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Union's Grand Strategy

Fort Sumter, a U. Army fort in Charleston Harbor, surrendered April 14, , and President Lincoln issued a proclamation calling up 75, troops to put down the rebellion. For four states, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia, this was the act that pushed them into joining the Confederacy.

The Confederate States of America

Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware which are shaded green, were slave states that never declared secession. West Virginia, joined the Union in , when it seceded from Virginia. Several notations on the map refer to the state of war between the Confederate States of America and the United States of America.

Forts are depicted and are labeled by which side held which fort. A handful of arsenals and navy yards are also included. An inset map of Charleston Harbor is located along the bottom border next to the key. Regarding the general geography of the map, the state capitals and other major cities are labeled, along with rivers and the Great Lakes. This map was created by Albert Bushnell Hart with L. Philip Denoyer serving as geographer. The map was compiled and drawn by R. We have dated this map as c. Several different editions of this map were printed, which allows for the possibility that this particular example could date from an earlier or later year.

Very good.

Backed on linen. Attached to original rollers. Measurment is for the map itself. Since the map is attached to rods, they add an another 2 inches in height and 3. Looking for a high-resolution scan of this? The first meeting was held in Cleveland County on 12 Nov. A series of similar gatherings were held across the state.

The movement was given a boost by the secession of South Carolina on 20 Dec.


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To counter the secessionist trend, the Unionists held meetings of their own. Holden's Standard effectively espoused the Union cause, expressing hope of compromise despite the departure of the Deep South states. On 29 Jan. The legislature also voted to send delegates to the Washington Peace Conference on 4 February. The convention campaign was vigorously waged.

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The Unionists were able to set the terms of the debate early, focusing on the question of "Union or Disunion. To the charge that disunion meant war, A. Venable of Granville County declared that he would "wipe up every drop of blood shed in the war with this handkerchief of mine. The Unionists carried the northeastern counties and most of the Piedmont and Mountains.

They defeated the secessionists by a vote of 47, to 46, Because a few Unionists, including Vance, supported the convention call, the delegate elections are more indicative of actual sentiment.

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States Which Seceded

Only about a third of the delegates elected were secessionists. The Unionists were helped by positive news from the Peace Conference the day before the election. The debate in the campaign had been injurious to the secessionist cause. On 4 March, a few days after the vote, Lincoln gave his inaugural address, which struck some as conciliatory.

The secessionists did not give up, however. On Mar. They urged the legislature to call a convention and demanded that the state join the Confederacy. They posed the new debate in terms of South against North. Despite numerous meetings, by early April North Carolina seemed no nearer to secession than it had been in February.

American Civil War in 10 Minutes

Then came the news that Confederate forces had bombarded Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor on 12 April, followed on 15 April by Lincoln's call for 75, troops. Governor Ellis responded, "You can get no troops from North Carolina. Ellis called a special session of the legislature for 1 May and immediately ordered the seizure of Federal property. When the General Assembly met, it voted for a delegate election on 13 May to an unrestricted convention to meet in Raleigh on 20 May, the anniversary of the so-called Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence.

The campaign for the convention was characterized by resignation rather than enthusiasm. Both Unionists and secessionists spoke of the need to act in the face of northern aggression. The major debate-whether North Carolina should separate based on "the right of revolution," as some Unionists advocated, or on the Calhounian doctrine of secession-was over. The radical secessionists favored the latter position. A total of Democratic and Whig delegates, of whom were native North Carolinians, gathered on 20 May The delegates held an average of Sixty-eight delegates had attended college, making them far better educated than those who had elected them.

The convention elected Weldon N. Edwards , a Democratic planter from Warren County , as president. Edwards defeated William A. Graham of Orange County. Edwards gave a speech denouncing continued connection with the "Black Republican Union. Badger introduced a resolution for separation from the Union based on the right of revolution.

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An alternate ordinance, simply dissolving the Union and representing the radical position, was proposed by Burton Craige of Rowan County. The Badger proposal was defeated by a vote of 72 to An attempt to modify the Craige ordinance failed.


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  • The convention then unanimously passed the ordinance of secession and voted to accept the provisional Constitution of the Confederate States of America. As requested by Governor Ellis , the convention agreed not to put the secession ordinance to a popular vote.


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    • The convention represented the high point for the Democratic secessionists, who suffered a major setback one year later when Conservative candidate Zebulon B.